While the whites were under a semblance of protection by the rebels, Stanleyville’s black residents were not, and a reign of terror began as the Simbas systematically tortured and killed prominent Congolese. Consul Michael Hoyt was taken into custody, along with other members of the consulate staff, and thrown into the city’s Central Prison. Some were thrown into the prison with the Americans, while others were held in the Victoria Hotel.
Then, evidently realizing that the whites in their territory could serve as bargaining chips, the rebels began taking hostages. Over the next two months, the Simbas arrested foreigners from as many as 20 countries, placing them under custody in hotels, prisons and military bases. Carlson, with the Protestant Relief Agency, was a medical doctor who first went to the Congo on a special six-month mission, then returned in 1963 with his family.
Fla., as well as the Pentagon, the State Department and the White House. The Congolese air force consisted primarily of World War II-vintage North American T-6 trainers, which like the Cuban-flown T-28s, had been converted into attack planes.
In August, the Simbas captured the city of Stanleyville with its large concentration of Europeans and Americans.
For a time the whites were treated relatively well.
But later, with additional American-supplied firepower and airlift support, the Congolese army made steady gains against the rebel forces.
Gradwell, commander of Detachment One, 332nd Air Division at Evreux, would have command.